An inexperienced person is very apt to dull or nick a tool by striking its edge against nails or by using it for purposes other than what it was made for. For this reason a carpenter is very apt to refuse a boy, or any amateur for that matter, the use of his tools, and he is right in doing so.
Just imagine the amount of work it makes for him to put the tools in shape after they have been returned in all sorts of conditions. A little rubbing on the oil-stone, with an occasional grinding, is all his tools require when he is using them, but to remove nicks made by his young friends wastes too much of his valuable time.
A good rule to observe is never to lend tools to any of your friends, for though they may be as careful in handling them as you are, the chances are they will not be. You had better be a little "grouchy" in this respect, than to have tools which are unfit to do good work with.
Saws – One can get along with two saws, a cross-cut saw for general use and a compass-saw for finer work, such as circular sawing, and cutting thin wood where a large saw would be too coarse and apt to split the work . But you will often have a need of a rip-saw, back-saw, and bracket-saw.
The Cross-cut Saw is, of course, intended for cutting across the grain, while the rip-saw is for cutting with the grain, or ripping. The former saw can be used for rip-sawing, but the operation is much slower, and when you have much of it to do, as in ripping a six-foot board, for instance, you will find the work tedious.
The Rip-saw is not fit for cross-cutting, as it leaves the cut fibers in a very rough condition.
The difference in these two saws lies in the shape of their teeth. This can be seen by picking them up and examining their cutting edges. You will find the teeth are bent out of line, the first to the right side and the next to the left. This is known as the "set" of the teeth, and the quality of your work will depend greatly upon the care with which the teeth have been sharpened and set.
At first you may confuse these two saws, but if you will notice that the teeth of the cross-cut saw come to sharp points and are bevelled on the sides, while those of the rip-saw are not sharpened on the sides, and instead of being pointed on the ends are chisel-shaped you will have little trouble in distinguishing them.
Source by James W. Vincent